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Publication details

Document type
Journal articles

Document subtype
Full paper

Title
Effect of electrochemical control function on the internal structure and composition of electrodeposited polypyrrole films: A neutron reflectometry study

Participants in the publication
Charlotte Beebee (Author)
Erik B. Watkins (Author)
Rachel M. Sapstead (Author)
Virginia C. Ferreira (Author)
FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS DA UNIVERSIDADE DE LISBOA
FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS DA UNIVERSIDADE DE LISBOA
Dep. Química e Bioquímica
Dep. Química e Bioquímica
CQB - Centro de Química e Bioquímica 
Karl S. Ryder (Author)
Emma L. Smith (Author)
A. Robert Hillman (Author)

Summary
Electrodeposited conducting polymer films derived from aromatic monomers are known to possess properties that depend significantly on the deposition protocol, particularly the electrochemical control function employed. This study explores the underlying reasons for this common observation for the specific case of polypyrrole films deposited from aqueous media onto gold electrodes under potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic control. Although the control functions impose different conditions, the control parameters (potential, potential range and scan rate, and current) were selected so as generate films at comparable rates; this avoids inappropriate attribution of structural and compositional variations to different thickness regimes, irrespective of how they were generated. In each case, film deposition was periodically interrupted and the film characterised by specular neutron reflectivity measurements. By using d4-pyrrole monomer in H2O solvent, the isotopic selectivity of neutron reflectivity was used to extract polymer and solvent concentration profiles as a function of distance from the electrode/film interface. Spatial integration of these profiles was used to quantify total film solvent populations; these are expressed as solvent volume fractions. Films grown under the three different control regimes have measurably distinct solvent volume fraction profiles and there is evolution of these profiles with increasing thickness. Ultimately, for the conditions employed, the order of increasing porosity (i.e. solvent content) by control function was potentiostatic < potentiodynamic < galvanostatic. At the end of the deposition process, the films were transferred to monomer-free electrolyte and redox cycled. This resulted in an overall increase in film solvation, but little difference in solvation with redox state (doping level). We conclude that film structure and associated solvation level do retain some memory of deposition protocol, but also respond to the medium of exposure.

Date of Publication
2019-02

Institution
FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS DA UNIVERSIDADE DE LISBOA

Where published
Electrochimica Acta

Publication Identifiers
ISSN - 0013-4686

Publisher
Elsevier BV

Volume
295

Number of pages
10
Starting page
978
Last page
988

Document Identifiers
URL - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2018.10.064
DOI - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2018.10.064

Rankings
SCIMAGO Q1 (2018) - 1.365 - Electrochemistry
SCOPUS Q1 (2017) - 1.439 - Electrochemistry
Web Of Science Q1 (2018) - 5.383 - ELECTROCHEMISTRY - SCIE

Keywords
Solvation Conducting polymer Modified electrode Electrodeposition Neutron reflectivity Polypyrrole


Export

APA
Charlotte Beebee, Erik B. Watkins, Rachel M. Sapstead, Virginia C. Ferreira, Karl S. Ryder, Emma L. Smith, A. Robert Hillman, (2019). Effect of electrochemical control function on the internal structure and composition of electrodeposited polypyrrole films: A neutron reflectometry study. Electrochimica Acta, 295, 978-988. ISSN 0013-4686. eISSN . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2018.10.064

IEEE
Charlotte Beebee, Erik B. Watkins, Rachel M. Sapstead, Virginia C. Ferreira, Karl S. Ryder, Emma L. Smith, A. Robert Hillman, "Effect of electrochemical control function on the internal structure and composition of electrodeposited polypyrrole films: A neutron reflectometry study" in Electrochimica Acta, vol. 295, pp. 978-988, 2019. 10.1016/j.electacta.2018.10.064

BIBTEX
@article{40910, author = {Charlotte Beebee and Erik B. Watkins and Rachel M. Sapstead and Virginia C. Ferreira and Karl S. Ryder and Emma L. Smith and A. Robert Hillman}, title = {Effect of electrochemical control function on the internal structure and composition of electrodeposited polypyrrole films: A neutron reflectometry study}, journal = {Electrochimica Acta}, year = 2019, pages = {978-988}, volume = 295 }