BIBLIOS

  Ciências References Management System

Visitor Mode (Login)
Need help?


Back

Publication details

Document type
Journal articles

Document subtype
Full paper

Title
The first supermassive black holes: indications from models for future observations

Participants in the publication
Stergios Amarantidis (Author)
José Afonso (Author)
Hugo Messias (Author)
Bruno Henriques (Author)
Andrew Griffin (Author)
Cedric Lacey (Author)
Claudia del P Lagos (Author)
Violeta Gonzalez-Perez (Author)
Yohan Dubois (Author)
Marta Volonteri (Author)
Israel Matute (Author)
Dep. Física
Ciro Pappalardo (Author)
Yuxiang Qin (Author)
Ranga-Ram Chary (Author)
Ray P Norris (Author)

Scope
International

Refereeing
Yes

Summary
We present an exploration of the expected detection of the earliest active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Universe from state-of-art galaxy formation and evolution semi-analytic models and hydrodynamical simulations. We estimate the number and radiative characteristics of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at z ≥ 6, a redshift range that will be intensively explored by the next generation of telescopes, in particular in the radio through the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and at high energies with ESA's Athena X-ray Observatory. We find that Athena will be able to observe over 5000 AGN deg-2 at the Epoch of Re-ionization (EoR), 6 ≤ z ≤ 10. Similarly, for the same redshift range the models/simulations suggest that SKA will detect at least 400 AGN deg-2. Additionally, we stress the importance of the volume of the simulation box as well as the initial physical conditions of the models/simulations on their effect on the luminosity functions (LFs) and the creation of the most massive SMBHs that we currently observe at the EoR. Furthermore, following the evolution of the accretion mode of the SMBHs in each model/simulation, we show that, while the quasar dominates over the radio mode at the EoR, detection at radio wavelengths still reaches significant numbers even at the highest redshifts. Finally, we present the effect that the radiative efficiency has on the LFs by comparing results produced with a constant value for the radiative efficiency and more complex calculations based on the spin of each SMBH.

Date of Publication
2019-05

Where published
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Publication Identifiers
ISSN - 0035-8711

Publisher
Oxford University Press (OUP)

Volume
485
Number
2

Number of pages
15
Starting page
2694
Last page
2709

Document Identifiers
DOI - https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz551
URL - http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz551

Keywords
galaxies: high-redshift; quasars: general; radio continuum: galaxies; X-rays: galaxies; Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies


Export

APA
Stergios Amarantidis, José Afonso, Hugo Messias, Bruno Henriques, Andrew Griffin, Cedric Lacey, Claudia del P Lagos, Violeta Gonzalez-Perez, Yohan Dubois, Marta Volonteri, Israel Matute, Ciro Pappalardo, Yuxiang Qin, Ranga-Ram Chary, Ray P Norris, (2019). The first supermassive black holes: indications from models for future observations. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 485, 2694-2709. ISSN 0035-8711. eISSN . http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz551

IEEE
Stergios Amarantidis, José Afonso, Hugo Messias, Bruno Henriques, Andrew Griffin, Cedric Lacey, Claudia del P Lagos, Violeta Gonzalez-Perez, Yohan Dubois, Marta Volonteri, Israel Matute, Ciro Pappalardo, Yuxiang Qin, Ranga-Ram Chary, Ray P Norris, "The first supermassive black holes: indications from models for future observations" in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 485, pp. 2694-2709, 2019. 10.1093/mnras/stz551

BIBTEX
@article{49971, author = {Stergios Amarantidis and José Afonso and Hugo Messias and Bruno Henriques and Andrew Griffin and Cedric Lacey and Claudia del P Lagos and Violeta Gonzalez-Perez and Yohan Dubois and Marta Volonteri and Israel Matute and Ciro Pappalardo and Yuxiang Qin and Ranga-Ram Chary and Ray P Norris}, title = {The first supermassive black holes: indications from models for future observations}, journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society}, year = 2019, pages = {2694-2709}, volume = 485 }